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TABLE 3
Demographic Profiles of Premodern, Early and Later Transitional, and Modern Populations3
Early               Later
Population Characteristics           Premodern     Transitional     Transitional     Modern
Birth rate	45.6	43.7	45.7	20.4
Death rate	40.6	33.7	15.7	10.4
Annual growth rate (percent)	0.5	1.0	3.0	1.0
Age structure:				
Percent under 15	36.7	37.8	45.4	27.2
Percent 15-59	57.6	56.5	50.3	58.2
Percent 60 and over	5.7	5.7	4.3	14.6
Average age	25.5	25.1	21.8	32.8
Dependency ratio				
(per 100 of age 15-59)	74	77	99	72
Youth	64	67	90	47
Old age	10	10	9	25
Percent surviving to age 15	48.8	55.9	78.8	95.6
Expectation of life at birth	25.0	30.0	50.0	70.0
Expectation of life at age 20	31.2	33.9	43.9	53.4
Average number children born to				
women by age 50	5.7	5.5	6.1	2.9
Average number children surviving				
to age 20	2.6	2.9	4.7	2.7
aBased on stable populations for "West" female. Source: (11).
age, defined as 15 to 64 years. India, a good example of a population in transition, had in 1968 a birth rate estimated at 41, a death rate of 16, and a growth rate of 2.5 percent per annum. Expectation of life at birth was 45 years. The proportion of persons under 15 years of age was 41 percent.
The more developed areas, in contrast, possessed a modern population profile in 1960. Two thirds of these areas had birth rates ranging from 17 to 23. Most of the developed nations had expectations of life at birth ranging from 67 to 72 years. Most of these nations were growing at rates of 0.5 to 1.7 percent per year.
In the more developed regions of the world in 1960Świth reduced fertility as well as reduced mortalityŚless than 29 percent of the population was under 15; over 8 percent was 65 and over, and 63 percent was in the intermediate group, 15 to 64 years. Therefore, the dependency burden in the economically advanced regions was much lower, only 59, or about three fourths of the dependency ratio in the less developed regions.
The United Kingdom, an example of a modern population, had a birth rate in 1968 of 17.8, a death rate of 11.7, and a growth rate of 0.5 percent perncy, and dependency ratios change radically, as shown in the last two columns of Table 3.